I'm in agreement with some of the other posts here, but it is clear that having a central registry of children and forcing people to not reproduce isn't the answer. This is the very thing most capitalistic types accuse any non-market based system of...coercion. There is nothing wrong with using a "per-human" measurement of resources in an aggregate fashion, as it's a good value to judge how efficient the society is (rates of use vs rates of gain).
Besides that, the claim that "more women will reproduce" isn't generally held up in that way. As standard of living and education rates go up, birthrates go _down_. The places where you see the highest birthrates are places where education is not up to par for the majority of the population, and the devoutly religious. Compounding this is the increased carrying capacity furthered by how efficiently society can operate at that level.